[tel-01413985] Statistical analysis of networks and applications in Social Sciences
Over the last two decades, network structure analysis has experienced rapid growth with its construction and its intervention in many fields, such as: communication networks, financial transaction networks, gene regulatory networks, disease transmission networks, mobile telephone networks. Social networks are now commonly used to represent the interactions between groups of people; for instance, ourselves, our professional colleagues, our friends and family, are often part of online networks, such as Facebook, Twitter, email. In a network, many factors can exert influence or make analyses easier to understand. Among these, we find two important ones: the time factor, and the network context. The former involves the evolution of connections between nodes over time. The network context can then be characterized by different types of information such as text messages (email, tweets, Facebook, posts, etc.) exchanged between nodes, categorical information on the nodes (age, gender, hobbies, status, etc.), interaction frequencies (e.g., number of emails sent or comments posted), and so on. Taking into consideration these factors can lead to the capture of increasingly complex and hidden information from the data. The aim of this thesis is to define new models for graphs which take into consideration the two factors mentioned above, in order to develop the analysis of network structure and allow extraction of the hidden information from the data. These models aim at clustering the vertices of a network depending on their connection profiles and network structures, which are either static or dynamically evolving. The starting point of this work is the stochastic block model, or SBM. This is a mixture model for graphs which was originally developed in social sciences. It assumes that the vertices of a network are spread over different classes, so that the probability of an edge between two vertices only depends on the classes they belong to.